《2020年世界毒品报告》(附全文)

时间:2020-06-27 13:33    禁毒在线    浏览次数:    

2020年世界毒品报告指出全球有3500万人吸毒成瘾 新冠疫情催生新的贩毒途径Y09禁毒在线


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联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室6月25日发布的《2020年世界毒品报告》指出,全球目前有3500多万人吸毒成瘾。报告指出,2018年,全球约有2.69亿人滥用毒品,比2009年增长了30%。
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毒品和犯罪问题办公室执行主任瓦利(Ghada Waly)表示, 脆弱和边缘化群体,比如年轻人、妇女和穷人在全球毒品问题上付出代价。Y09禁毒在线

新冠与毒品流行

虽然新冠疫情对非法毒品供给的影响还未能完全获知,但因疫情实施的边境管制已经造成市面上毒品短缺,纯度下降,价格飙升。Y09禁毒在线

同时,失业增加预计也将不成比例地影响最贫困的人,他们更可能使用毒品,从事毒品贩卖和培育,以获取金钱来谋生。Y09禁毒在线

大流行的阴影

报告指出,由于新冠大流行促使贩卖者寻求新的贩毒方法,通过所谓暗网和邮寄包裹进行的非法贩毒活动可能会增加。Y09禁毒在线

由于新冠大流行导致会使人严重上瘾的阿片类药物短缺,人们可能会寻找更容易获得的物质,包括酒精、镇静剂或通过更有害的方法使用毒品,例如静脉注射。Y09禁毒在线

报告指出,如果各国政府像应对2008年金融危机那样,减少有关毒品的政策介入、预防和治疗服务,那么抗击阿片上瘾的措施可能尤其会受到影响。Y09禁毒在线

大麻使用趋势

报告指出,在某些国家和地区,例如美国某些州,将大麻合法化的背景下,大麻越发被频繁使用,并且在某些市场上更高效力的大麻产品越来越多。 根据来自69个国家的2014年至2018年期间的数据,在登记的所有与毒品有关的犯罪中,大麻占一半以上。Y09禁毒在线

社会经济影响

虽然全球各地的医用阿片类药物的供应情况有所不同,但该报告指出,低收入国家仍然十分缺乏疼痛治疗和姑息治疗药物。Y09禁毒在线

2018年,全球 90%的医用阿片类药物为全球12%的人口使用,主要在高收入国家。其他88%生活在低收入和中等收入国家的人对医用阿片类药物的消费量不到10%。Y09禁毒在线

报告指出,立法、文化、卫生系统和开处方的做法都对医用阿片类药物的获取至关重要。Y09禁毒在线

同时,贫困、有限的教育和社会边缘化不仅增加了吸毒成瘾的风险,而且边缘化群体在获得有效治疗方面可能面临歧视和被污名化。Y09禁毒在线


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The booklet provides the summary of the six subsequent booklets of the World Drug Report 2020 by reviewing their key findings and highlighting policy implications based on their conclusions. The main findings in 2020 were:Y09禁毒在线

Effects of covid-19 on drug markets

Impact could be like the 2008 economic crisis

The effect of COVID-10 pandemic on drug markets is unknown and hard to predict but it could be far reaching. Some producers could be forced to seek out new ways to manufacture drugs as restrictions on movement constrict access to precursors and essential chemicals.Y09禁毒在线

Following the economic crisis of 2008, some users began seeking out cheaper synthetic substances, and patterns of use shifted towards injecting drugs. Meanwhile, Governments reduced drug-related budgets.Y09禁毒在线

The biggest immediate impact on drug trafficking can be expected in countries where large quantities are smuggled on commercial airliner flights.Y09禁毒在线

In the longer run, the economic downturn and associated lockdowns have the potential to disrupt drug markets. Rising unemployment and lack of opportunities will make it more likely that poor and disadvantaged people engage in harmful patterns of drug use, suffer drug use disorders and turn to illicit activities linked to drugs – either production or transport.Y09禁毒在线

Expansion and complexity: market growth

Patterns of population growth partially explain the market expansion

Drug use around the world has been on the rise, in terms of both overall numbers and the proportion of the world’s population that uses drugs. In 2009, the estimated 210 million users represented 4.8 per cent of global population aged 15‒64, compared with the estimated 269 million users in 2018, or 5.3 per cent of the population.Y09禁毒在线

Urbanization is a driving factor in current and future drug markets

Drug use is higher in urban areas than in rural areas, in both developed and developing countries. The mass movement of people from the countryside to towns and cities – more than half the world’s population now live in urban areas compared with 34 per cent in 1960 – partially explains the overall rise in drug use.Y09禁毒在线

Increasing wealth is linked to rising drug use, but the poorest suffer the largest burden of disorders

Worldwide, drug use is more widespread in developed countries than in developing countries. Drugs such as cocaine are even more firmly associated with the wealthier parts of the world.Y09禁毒在线

Emergence of substances not under international control stabilizes, but new potentially harmful opioids are on the increase

Drug markets are becoming increasingly complex. Plant-based substances such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin have been joined by hundreds of synthetic drugs, many not under international control. There has also been a rapid rise in the non-medical use of pharmaceutical drugs.Y09禁毒在线

Rapid market changes

Synthetics replace opiates in Central Asia and the Russian Federation and methamphetamine market grows in Afghanistan and Iraq
Policy changes and changing trends Cannabis use on the rise in most jurisdictions where non-medical use legalized.

Canada, Uruguay and 11 jurisdictions in the United States allow the manufacture and sale of cannabis products for non-medical use. In most of those jurisdictions, cannabis use has risen since its legalization.Y09禁毒在线

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Disadvantaged face harm from legal and illicit drug markets:

Pharmaceutical opioids for pain management and palliative care are available mostly in high-income countries

Medicines for pain relief are unequally distributed across regions. More than 90 per cent of all pharmaceutical opioids available for medical consumption were in high-income countries in 2018Y09禁毒在线

Poorer people face a greater risk of drug use disorders

Some 35.6 million people suffered from drug use disorders in 2018. Poverty, limited education and social marginalization may increase the risk of drug use disorders and exacerbate the consequences.
The relationship between drugs and violence is complex. It is difficult to pin down all the causal relationships between the use of psychoactive substances and violence. The limited data at the global level show that intoxication may be a significant factor in homicide.Y09禁毒在线

Latest trends

Drug use

Cannabis the most used substance, opioids the most harmful. An estimated 192 million people used cannabis in 2018, making it the most used drug globally. In comparison, 58 million people used opioids in 2018. accounted for 66 per cent of the estimated 167,000 deaths related to drug use disorders in 2017 and 50 per cent of the 42 millions years (or 21 million years) lost due to disability or early death, attributed to drug use. More than 11 million people inject drugs, while 1.4 million PWID are living with HIV, 5.5 million with hepatitis C and 1.2 million are living with both hepatitis C and HIV.Y09禁毒在线

Non-medical use of synthetic opioids fuels public health crises In West, Central and North Africa, the opioid crisis is fuelled by tramadol; in North America, by fentanyls.Y09禁毒在线

The stimulant scene is dominated by cocaine and methamphetamine, and use of both substances is rising in their main markets. Some 19 million people used cocaine in 2018, while roughly 27 million people used amphetamines that same year, methamphetamine being the most used ATS in South-East Asia.Y09禁毒在线

Supply chains

Supply of plant-based drugs still at a high level despite some decreases The area under opium poppy cultivation (240,800 hectare) shrank for a second year in a row in 2019, led by declines in Afghanistan and Myanmar. The quantities of opiates seized (704 tons) in 2018 also fell markedly from the previous year.Y09禁毒在线

Coca bush cultivation continues at a historically very high level (244,200 hectare) . The area under coca cultivation remained stable from 2017 to 2018. However, estimated global manufacture of cocaine once more reached an all-time high (1723 tons), and global seizures increased marginally (1,131 tons).Y09禁毒在线

Quantities of seized methamphetamine, the ATS with the largest market globally, reached a new record high, at 228 ton-equivalents, in 2018.Y09禁毒在线

Traffickers show resilience by changing routes and production practices Heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine traffickers have varied routes and continue to develop new trading patterns.Y09禁毒在线

V2002973_Exum_Chinese.pdf2020年世界毒品报告中文版报告)Y09禁毒在线


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来源:联合国新闻Y09禁毒在线

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